Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation.
It is brownish-black and has a high inherent moisture content, sometimes as high as 45 percent, and very high ash content compared to bituminous coal. The heat content of lignite ranges from 9 to 17 million Btu per short ton (10 to 20 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 13 million Btu/ton (15 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Statement of Hazardous Nature
Briquettes are not classified as hazardous according to the hazardous substances classification criteria of Worksafe Australia.
Briquettes have been exempted from the Hazardous Goods regulations for road and rail transport and storage within Australia. For bulk shipments by sea, briquettes are classified by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority as self heating coal (liable to spontaneous heating but not emitting methane) under the International Maritime Organisation Goods Code Supplement Section Code of Safe Practice for Solid Fuel Cargoes. For bulk shipments by sea UN Classification Number 3088 applies. For all other purposes, particularly when packed in drums, bags and containers, the following applies:
Dangerous Goods Class:
4.1, (self heating substance)
Manufacturers Product Code:
Industrial (Type I Industrial) and Household (Type II Household) fuel, carbon source
Dark Brown Cylindrical Lumps (approx 58 x 43 x 40mm for Type I industrial briquettes. Approx 86 x 62 x 40mm for household briquettes)
1.16 - 1.24 g/cm3 (dependent on particle size)
Dust Concentration 0.09 - 7.0 kg/m3
Oxygen Concentration < 13%
Solubility in Water (g/L):
May spontaneously self heat in air over a period of hours or days. If not controlled, this can lead to spontaneous combustion. Dust explosion hazard if air borne dust concentration 0.09 to 7.0 kg/m3 and oxygen concentration < 13%. No dust explosion possible if dust concentration > 7 kg/m3 or oxygen concentration < 13%. Briquette dust is moderately corrosive. 51% volatile matter (dry basis).
Dried Brown Coal consisting of:
Moisture 10 - 13 (%)
Carbon 67 to 70 (%dry basis)
Hydrogen 4.7 to 5.1 (%dry basis)
Nitrogen 0.53 to 0.66 (%dry basis)
Sulphur (total) 0.29 to 0.42 (%dry basis)
Ash Yield 0.9 to 1.7 (%dry basis)
Oxygen 22.8 to 27.0 (%dry basis)
RN 129 521-66-0 (coal)
Precautions For Use
10 mg/m3 for briquette dust (8 hour TWA)
Reduce drop heights and impacts during handling to reduce dust levels. Ensure ventilation is adequate to maintain concentrations of briquette dust in air below exposure standards.
Goggles and dust mask recommended during handling of bulk product when dust is generated.
Use flameproof fittings, earth all containers to remove the possibility of sparks from static electricity and avoid ignition sources.
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